About the Book
Gene regulation is a process in which a cell determines which genes it will express and when. There are a number of reasons why organisms from unicellular animals to blue whales engage in this process, and the regulation of genes is a topic of interest for some researchers who are interested in learning more about how the process works and what happens when it goes wrong. Regulation of gene expression, or gene regulation, includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA). Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed.
This book provides a clear, concise state of the art overview of the protocols and techniques used to examine chemically or disease-mediated variations in gene expression. Gene expression profile of HDF in SMG partially overlaps and in regulation of gene expression. Third chapter will focus on main concepts and paradigms involved in the role and interplay between sex steroid- and GH-dependent signaling to regulate gene expression networks in the mammalian liver. A better understanding of how sex steroids and interactions with GH-STAT5b signaling pathway influence physiological and pathological states in the liver will contribute to improve clinical management of patients with disorders in body growth, development, and metabolism. This book will focus on the analysis of gene expression levels and patterns, transcription mechanisms and the regulation of transcription. Human immune response dysregulation has been shown during and after space flight. Although acute onset life-threatening incidents directly caused by microgravity or spaceflight have not been reported, many conditions of health concern and symptoms related to immune dysfunction during orbital spaceflight have been described. Further, it sheds light on gene regulation and gene expression profiling in soybean under aluminum stress: genes differentially expressed between Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive genotypes. Histone chaperones are fundamental molecules that aid in the synthesis, translocation, and exchange of histones across the barrier of cytoplasm to nucleus. Regulation in repair, replication, and nucleosome assembly constitute the widely associated functions of histone chaperones. Recently, they have been associated with transcriptional regulation. Different stages of mammalian development have been correlated to the expression of histone chaperones. From oocyte and sperm till the formation and development of zygote, different histone chaperones demonstrated distinct regulatory roles. In seventh chapter, the book will discuss how histone chaperones could regulate the gene expression pattern by regulating epigenetic modification during the complex process of mammalian development and reprogramming.
Long non-coding RNAs in the regulation of gene expression: physiology and disease. The identification of RNAs that are not translated into proteins was an important breakthrough, defining the diversity of molecules involved in eukaryotic regulation of gene expression. These non-coding RNAs can be divided into two main classes according to their length: short non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The lncRNAs in association with other molecules can coordinate several physiological processes and their dysfunction may impact in several pathologies, including cancer and infectious diseases. They can control the flux of genetic information, such as chromosome structure modulation, transcription, splicing, messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, mRNA availability, and post-translational modifications. Long non-coding RNAs present interaction domains for DNA, mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins, depending on both sequence and secondary structure.
Further, this book reviews some important aspects of lncRNA biology, focusing on their role as regulatory elements in gene expression modulation during physiological and disease processes, with implications in host and pathogens physiology, and their role in immune response modulation. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. Multivariable regulation of gene expression plasticity in metazoans is explored in last chapter. Analysis of expression changes in perturbation experiments further validated a causal role of specific transcription factors and histone modifications. Collectively, this chapter reveals the general properties, physiological implications and multivariable regulation of gene expression plasticity in metazoans, extending the mechanistic understanding of gene regulation. This book is intended for students, scientists and researchers especially who are interested in the field of gene regulation and expression.